A

ABRASION RESISTANCE

The ability of a material to resist surface wear due to friction.

ABS

Abbreviation for the plastic polymer, “acrylonitrile butadiene styrene,” a synthetic polymer used in decorative coatings and edgebanding.

ACCESS PANEL

A removable panel which provides access to a space behind.

ACRYLIC LACQUER

A type of transparent finishing system containing acrylic resins.

ADHESION

The resistance to separation of material joined together with adhesives. In finishing, the resistance to separation of finish material from the underlying layers and/or substrate.

ADHESIVE

A general term for substances capable of bonding materials together by surface attachment and/or chemical reaction. Common types include glue, contact cement, epoxy, and caulk.

ADHESIVE, COLD PRESS AND HOT PRESS

“Cold press” means no heat is applied to the press and may include the use of pinch rollers. “Hot press” means heat is applied at the time the press is in operation to speed the cure of, and/or to activate the adhesive.

ADHESIVE, TYPE I FULLY WATERPROOF

Forms a bond that will retain its strength when subjected to a thorough wetting and drying; bond shall be of such quality that specimens will withstand the dry and cyclic-boil shear test as specified in ANSI/HPVA HP-1 (latest edition). Typically used in non-climate-controlled interior or exterior applications.

ADHESIVE, TYPE II WATER RESISTANT

Forms a bond that will retain its strength when occasionally subjected to a thorough wetting and drying; bond shall be of such quality that specimens will withstand the three-cycle soak and dry test as specified in ANSI/HPVA HP-1 (latest edition). Typically used in climate-controlled interior applications.

ADJACENT

A term used to describe two surfaces which are directly next to or touching each other.

ADJACENT PANEL

A panel surface that is within 152.4 mm [6”] of another panel surface on the same plane within a room.

ADJUSTABLE SHELVES

Shelves whose location can be adjusted through the use of pins (or brackets) set into line-bored holes or metal clips on a ladder-type shelf standard.

AESTHETIC

In relation to these standards, refers to the appearance and feel of those surfaces that will be exposed or semi-exposed following installation.

AGROFIBER

Core products made from the residual material from a grain crop similar in composition to particleboard.

AIR DRIED

Material that has been dried by controlled exposure to the atmosphere, in the open or under cover, without artificial heat.

ANCHOR STRIPS

Strips of material applied to the back of cabinets through which anchorage fasteners are inserted to mount the cabinet to the wall. Other terms include nailers and hanging strips.

ANCHORAGE FASTENER

Installation screws used to attach casework or blocking to walls.

ANILINE DYE

A synthetic dye used to add color to wood prior to topcoating. Dyes are particularly useful to enhance the color of the wood while maintaining or improving the clarity of figure and grain.

APRON

For purposes of these standards, means a horizontal trim member that extends vertically below a horizontal surface such as a countertop or table typically at knee spaces or open sink areas.

ARCHITECTURAL WOODWORK

Custom wood products including interior woodwork attached to a building (except specialty items such as flooring, shingles, exposed roof decking, ceiling, siding, structural wood trusses and rafters, and overhead type doors). May be composed of wood, laminate, or solid surface materials.

ARRIS

In architecture, a sharp edge formed by the meeting of two surfaces.

ARTICULATED JOINT

In architectural paneling, joint details that allow for field variations and movement due to expansion and contraction.

ASSEMBLY 1

A decorative laminate countertop construction method in which the back and end splash are separate from the top and are mounted to the wall and the countertop deck during installation.

ASSEMBLY 2

A decorative laminate countertop construction method in which the back and end splash are mounted to the deck prior to delivery.
B

BACK

1) The side which is opposite the face of a panel. 2) The poorer side of a panel calling for a face and a back. 3) The rear component of a cabinet opposite the doors, drawers, or open interior.

BACK PRIMING

The application of finish material to concealed surfaces of architectural woodwork in order to minimize moisture transfer between the coated material and building surfaces and/or interior air.

BACK VENEER

1) The veneer placed on the semi-exposed or concealed face of a veneered panel construction to balance the construction. 2) The veneer placed on the side opposite the face of a panel or the poorer side of panel calling for a face and a back.

BACKER MATERIAL

A sheet product, applied to the backs of panels, countertops and splashes, with performance properties determined by its material composition. Because material composition types vary, backer sheet types vary in performance properties. The type of backer sheet material used should be based on overall product demands. When used as a balancing sheet, a backer must have performance properties equal to an opposing surface with a similar adhesive and application process as the face sheet (See BALANCING SHEET). Otherwise, a backer sheet need not have performance properties equal to an opposing surface.

BALANCED CONSTRUCTION

A term used to describe a panel made up of an odd number of plies laminated together so that the materials are identical on both sides of a plane through the center of the panel. To achieve balanced construction, materials should be used on either side that contract or expand, or are moisture permeable, at the same rate. Balanced construction requirements for decorative laminate fabrication vary with the product. Doors and drawer fronts should have a balancing sheet on the back side and be applied in the same machine direction. Countertops or cabinet members, on the other hand, only require some form of backer material.

BALANCING SHEET

A sheet product with performance properties equal to an opposing surface. A balancing sheet is laminated to the secondary surface of a core with the same adhesive and application process as the primary surface material (i.e., face material) to maintain the panel’s flatness. Typically, a balance sheet is used to balance a panel that will not be captured or restrained (i.e., doors).

BALANCING SPECIES

A species of similar density and dimensional stability used to achieve balance by equalizing the rate of moisture absorption or emission.

BALUSTER

A vertical member below a handrail or guardrail used to provide support and function as a decorative barrier.

BALUSTRADE

The assembly of newels, balusters, and rails that make up a functional barrier which is both safe and decorative along balconies and open sides of stairways and ramps.

BANDED

Usually refers to the application of a material to the edge of a panel to cover or hide the otherwise exposed core.

BARBER POLE

An optical effect that often occurs when veneers are book matched, resulting in an alternating dark and light appearance. This is caused by slicing veneer, creating tight and loose sides that are placed adjacent to one another in the book matching process. The tight and loose sides reflect light differently, resulting in the varying appearance.

BARK POCKET

Tree bark around which wood has grown.

BASE

The support assembly between the cabinet’s bottom component and the floor.

BASE CABINET

A unit of casework which is supported entirely by the floor and contains an external work surface. The height of a base cabinet, from the finished floor to the countertop surface, ranges from: • 864 mm [34"] to 914 mm [36"] at stand-up counters. • 787 mm [31"] to 965 mm [38"] at vanities. • 11 mm [28"] to 813 mm [32"] at sit down counters, providing a clear knee space height of 622 mm [24.5"]. • 641 mm [25.25"] to 711mm [28"] at keyboard recesses, providing a clear knee space height of 622 mm [24.5"]. The depth of a base cabinet, from the front of the cabinet door/drawer to the face of the wall, ranges from 559 mm [22"] to 762 mm [30"].

BEDDING IN PUTTY

Glass which is set into a layer of glazing compound to hold it in place in a sash or frame.

BEVEL

A machined angle other than a right angle or, in flooring or wall paneling, a V-shaped groove between strips, planks, or panels.

BEVELED EDGE

The edge of a door that forms an angle of less than 90 degrees to the face, such as a three degree beveled edge to allow clearance for the door as it swings into the door frame when closed.

BIRD’S EYE

Decorative figure in veneer and solid wood that resembles swirling eyes or a series of small circles. This effect is due to small, conical depressions in the outer annual rings which appear to follow the same contour in subsequent growth rings, probably for many years.

BLEACHING

The chemical process used to remove color or whiten solid wood or wood veneered panels. This process may be used to lighten an extremely dark wood or to whiten a lighter colored wood. Most woods do not turn completely white when bleached.

BLEEDING

An effect that occurs when the color of one finish coating material migrates up through the finishing layer to the succeeding coat, imparting some of its characteristics along the way.

BLENDING

Color change that is detectable at a distance of 1829 mm [6’] to 2438 mm [8’] but does not detract from the overall appearance of a panel or door.

BLIND CORNER

The abutting of two cabinets, typically with filler strips, at an approximate 90 degree angle, resulting in an empty space in the back corner.

BLISTERING

1) Formation of bubbles on the surface of a coating, caused by trapping air or vapors beneath the surface. 2) An area where veneer does not adhere to the core material. 3) A wood figure resembling an uneven collection of rounded or blister-like bulges caused by the uneven contour of annual growth rings.

BLUEPRINT SEQUENCED PANELS AND COMPONENTS

A manufacturing method in which each panel of the walls and components (i.e., desk, doors) is custom-manufactured to the specific size required. All panels are balance matched and sequenced to the adjacent panels.

BLUSHING

The whitish, cloud like haze that occurs in fast drying finishes, especially lacquer, when they are sprayed in very humid conditions. This effect is, most often, due to moisture or water vapor trapped in the film or resin precipitating out of solution.

BOARD

An individual piece of lumber prior to gluing for width or thickness.

BOARD FOOT

A unit of measurement of lumber equivalent to a board 25.4 mm [1”] thick by 305 mm [12”] wide by 305 mm [12”] long. Abbreviated BF, Bf, or bf. When stock is less than 25.4 mm [1”] thick, it is usually calculated as if it were a full 25.4 mm [1”] thick.

BOOK MATCH

A veneer lay-up term to describe the matching between adjacent veneer leaves on one panel face. Every other piece of veneer is turned over so that the adjacent leaves are “opened” like two pages in a book. Due to the effect on the wood fibers as a result of the slicing process, the adjacent leaves may reflect light differently, resulting in a light and dark contrast known as Barber Pole.

BOW

A deviation, flatwise, from a straight line drawn from end to end of a piece. It is measured at the point of greatest distance from the straight line.

BOX STRINGER

See CLOSED STRINGER.

BRASHNESS

A condition of wood characterized by low resistance to shock and by abrupt failure across the grain without splintering.

B-STAGE CURING

A process that utilizes heat or UV light to remove the majority of solvent from a substance, thereby allowing finish coats to be applied in stages. In between applications, coating and curing can be held for a period of time without sacrificing performance.

BUCKS

In-wall blocking used for the installation of door/window jambs and other woodwork in conjunction with metal framing and/or block walls.

BUGLE HEAD SCREW

Similar to countersunk screw; however, there is a smooth curved, progression from the shank to the angle of the head, similar to the bell of a bugle; such as drywall screws. Bugle head screws are manufactured in accordance with ASTM C954.

BULLNOSE

A convex, rounded shape typically applied to edges of countertops, stair steps, and trim moulding.

BURL

Figure in wood created by abnormal growth or response to injury that forms an irregular mass of dense woody tissue on the trunk or branch of the tree. Burls are characterized by eye-like markings surrounded by swirls and clusters of distorted tissues. The measurement of the burl is the average of the maximum and minimum dimensions of the burl.

BURL, BLENDING

A swirl, twist, or distortion in the grain of the wood which usually occurs near a knot or crotch but does not contain a knot and does not contain abrupt color variation. A blending burl is detectable at 1829 mm [6’] to 2438 mm [8’] as a swirl or roundel.

BURL, CONSPICUOUS

A swirl, twist, or distortion in the grain of the wood which usually occurs near a knot or crotch. A conspicuous burl is associated with abrupt color variation and/or a cluster of small dark piths caused by a cluster of adventitious buds.

BUTCHER BLOCK

Generally refers to face-glued hardwoods (usually maple) forming a work surface in which the edge grain is exposed to wear.

BUTT JOINT

A joint formed by square-edged surfaces (ends, edges, faces) coming together; end butt joint, edge butt joint.
C

CABINET

See CABINET UNIT, CASEWORK

CABINET BODY

A unit of casework consisting of structural components, including tops, bottoms, backs, ends (sides), stretchers, and divisions. Does not include doors, drawers, or countertops.

CABINET FACE

The outermost surface of a cabinet unit that allows access to the interior of the cabinet unit, including door faces, drawer faces, or false front faces. Does not include ends, sides, top, bottom or back. If the cabinet is an open cabinet, the cabinet face is the outermost front, exposed edges of the cabinet box. (See also OUTERMOST CABINET FACE)

CABINET LINER

As used within these Standards, a common name for High Pressure Decorative Laminate (HPDL) not to exceed a thickness of .5 mm [.020”] thickness.

CABINET UNIT

A single, manufactured case typically consisting of two ends, a top, a bottom, and may include back, stretchers, anchor strips, shelves, doors, drawer fronts, drawers, dividers, and hardware. See also BASE CABINET, TALL CABINET, WALL CABINET

CANT STRIP

A triangular-shaped or beveled strip of material used to ease the transition from a horizontal plane to a vertical plane.

CANTILEVER

A projecting structure that is attached or supported at only one end, such as an extended countertop.

CAPTURED

A term used to describe a component whose perimeter is mechanically fastened or joined to other components so that it’s not allowed to warp independently of those attached components.

CARCASS

See CABINET BODY.

CASEWORK

Base, tall, and wall cabinets, display fixtures, and storage shelving units. The generic term for both “boxes” and special desks, reception counters, nurse’s stations, etc. Generally includes countertops and work surfaces. See also BASE CABINET, TALL CABINET, WALL CABINET

CASEWORK HANGING SYSTEM

A cabinet mounting system, typically composed of two features: a metal profiled rail which is attached to the wall and a set of mechanical devices attached to the cabinet body designed to engage the rail and allow for adjustment and securing the cabinet to the wall.

CATALYZED

In finishing, used to describe a finish material into which a chemical additive has been mixed; formulated to induce a chemical reaction which cures the finish and may enhance the performance characteristics.

CATHEDRAL GRAIN

A grain appearance characterized by a series of stacked and inverted “V” or cathedral-type patterns common in plain sliced (flat cut) veneer. Cathedral grain is most noticeable in species which exhibit a high amount of contrast between springwood and summerwood.

CAULK

1) A sealant used to fill or make a watertight or airtight seal between two adjacent surfaces. 2) The action of making a seal with a sealant.

CENTER MATCHED

Used to describe a form of veneer matching that uses two or more even-numbered leaves of equal width, matched with a joint occurring in the center of the panel, producing horizontal symmetry. A small amount of the figure is lost.

CHAIN OF CUSTODY

A method of tracking the handling of a wood product from the forest to delivery of the finished product. Each step of transportation and manufacturing is documented for verification of the handling process.

CHAMFER

An angled surface which runs from the face to the edge of the material.

CHARACTER MARK

As an element of nature, a distinctive feature in a wood surface produced by minerals and other elements that are absorbed as a tree grows.

CHATTER

Lines appearing across the surface of a panel or board, giving the appearance of one or more corrugations resulting from improper setup of planer or sander settings.

CHECKING

Cracks that appear in a finishing film due to lack of cohesion, often caused by too heavy of a coat being applied or a poor grade of finish being used. Also known as cold checking.

CHECKS

Small slits running parallel to the grain of wood, caused chiefly by improper seasoning and drying.

CHIP MARKS

Shallow depressions or indentations on or in the surface of dressed lumber caused by shavings or chips getting embedded in the surface during dressing.

CHORD SEGMENTATION

The process of cutting short lengths of straight material and joining them to form a curve.

CLIMATE

Atmospheric conditions found inside or outside a building, including temperature, humidity, and barometric pressure.

CLIMATE CONTROLLED

Referring to the inside areas of a building where heat or air conditioning systems are installed and actively used for environmental controls.

CLOSED STRINGER

In stairwork, a stringer that boxes in the treads and risers.

CLOSURE PANEL

A trim component at top of tall cabinets or top and bottom of wall cabinets used to fill the space between a casework unit and the adjacent wall or casework unit.

COFFER

A recessed, decorative panel set between exposed ceiling beams.

COLOR COMPATIBLE

See COMPATIBLE.

COMBED GRAIN

A rift cut veneer with exceptionally straight grain and closely-spaced growth increments resembling the appearance of long strands of combed hair.

COMBINATION CORE

Panels are a hybridization of veneer and composition cores, offering the advantages of both. Typically, these cores have internal layers which are constructed of three or five plies of veneer or a center layer of wafer board (randomly oriented wafers) which are sandwiched between thin laminations of a composite product like MDF, particleboard, hardboard, etc.

COMMON MARKET NAME

The non-scientific name used for wood that comes from a particular tree. More than one name may be used to sell the same type of wood. Example: Sugar Maple (Acer saccharum) may be sold as sugar maple, hard maple, rock maple, rock hard maple, hard rock maple, white maple, sweet maple, sugar tree maple, or butcher block maple.

COMPATIBLE

Consistent or similar in appearance to other components within an architectural woodwork assembly (See COMPATIBLE FOR COLOR AND GRAIN, COMPATIBLE FOR COLOR, COMPATIBLE SPECIES).

COMPATIBLE FOR COLOR AND GRAIN

For purposes of these standards, means members shall be selected so that: • Lighter-than-average color members will not be adjacent to darker-than-average color members and there will be no sharp contrast in color between the adjacent members, and • The grain of adjacent members shall not vary widely or be dissimilar in grain, character, and figure.

COMPATIBLE SPECIES

For purposes of these standards, means different species which are able to exist in a harmonious combination of color and grain.

COMPATIBLE FOR COLOR

Used to describe a material which is of similar color, hue, and tone to the adjacent components. Though color compatible does not imply an exact match, the differentiations between color compatible materials are inconspicuous (as defined in this glossary).

COMPONENT

An individual piece of solid stock or plywood that forms an item of woodwork.

CONCEALED SURFACES

Surfaces that are neither visible nor accessible to the building occupants and/or general public under normal circumstances.

CONSPICUOUS

Detectable; readily visible with the naked eye when observed under normal lighting conditions. May have further restrictions involving distance related to aesthetic grade levels defined in these standards.

CONTACT ADHESIVE

A bonding agent that is applied to two surfaces and allowed to dry before being pressed together.

CONTRACT DOCUMENT

The contract documents consist of the conditions of the contract (general, supplementary, and other conditions), drawings, specifications, addenda, other documents issued after execution of the agreement, all of which form the contract, and are fully a part of the contract. The contract represents the entire and integrated agreement between the parties hereto and supersedes prior negotiations, representations or agreements, either written or oral.

CONTRACTOR

See GENERAL CONTRACTOR

CONVERSION VARNISH

In finishing, a two-part transparent wood finishing system incorporating a chemical catalyst to induce curing and provide increased durability.

COPE

On profiled moulding, to cut the end of one member to match the profile of another molded member; often used to form interior corner joints in mouldings.

CORE

The panel material on which an exposed surface material (typically, veneer or decorative laminate) is applied. Examples: particleboard, MDF, veneer, lumber, or a combination of these.

CORE, HOLLOW

A core assembly generally used in doors, consisting of a frame assembly with open areas typically filled with an expandable cardboard/paper honeycomb material.

CORE, MINERAL

A fire-resistant core material generally used in doors requiring fire rating.

CORE, SOLID

The innermost layer or section in flush door construction. Typical materials are as follows:
• PARTICLEBOARD: A solid core of wood or other lignocellulose particles bonded together with a suitable binder, cured under heat, and pressed into a rigid panel in a flat platen press.
• STAVE: A solid core of wood blocks or strips.
• WOOD BLOCK, LINED: A solid core of two parts; a central wood block core bonded to two core liners of wood or other lignocellulose materials.

CRATERING

A finish defect appearing as small depressions or “fish eye”. Often caused by contamination of the finish material or substrate with silicone, oil, or other substances.

CROOK

A deviation, edgewise, from a straight line drawn from end to end of a piece. It is measured at the point of greatest distance from the straight line.

CROSS BAR

Irregularity of grain resembling a dip in the grain running at right angles, or nearly so, to the length of the veneer.

CROSS GRAIN

Grain direction irregularity due to interlocked fibers, uneven annual rings, or to the intersection of a branch and stem forcing the visual line of the grain to run at an angle to the length of the wood.

CROSSBANDING

A ply placed between the core and face veneer in 5-ply or more, construction. When the crossbanding has directional grain, it is placed at right angles to the grain of the face veneer. When used with laminate face doors, crossbanding may consist of more than one ply.

CROTCH VENEER

Veneer which is sliced from the portion of a tree just below the point where it forks into two limbs. The grain is commonly crushed and twisted, creating a variety of plume and flame figures, often resembling a well-formed feather. The outside of the block produces a swirl figure that changes to full crotch figure as the cutting approaches the center of the block.

CUP

A deviation in the face of a piece from a straight line drawn from end to end of a piece. It is measured at the point of greatest distance from the straight line.

CURB STRINGER

See CLOSED STRINGER.

CURING

The complete drying of a finish where it has achieved full development of its properties.

CURLY

Woodgrain figure that occurs when the fibers are distorted, producing a wavy or curly effect in the lumber or veneer. Primarily found in maple or birch.

CUSTOM GRADE

One of three aesthetic grades in regard to material and workmanship. Appropriate for the majority of projects. In the absence of specification, this is the default grade to be applied.

CUT HEART

See SPLIT HEART.
D

DADO JOINT

A rectangular groove across the grain of a wood member into which the end of the joining member is inserted; also, a housed joint. Variations include “mortise and tenon” and “stopped or blind dado” joints.

DADO, BLIND, OR STOPPED JOINT

A dado groove that is not visible when the joint is cross-grain.

DECORATIVE COMPOSITE PANELS

In architectural woodwork and casework, a thermally fused panel flat-pressed from a thermoset polyester or melamine resin impregnated paper (minimum 30%); See LOW PRESSURE DECORATIVE LAMINATES (LPDL).

DEFECT

A fault that detracts from the quality, appearance, or utility of a piece. Handling marks and/or grain raising due to moisture shall not be considered a defect.

DEFORESTATION

The permanent conversion of forest land to some other non-timber use.

DELAMINATION

Separation of plies or layers of wood or other materials through failure of the adhesive joint.

DESIGN PROFESSIONAL

An architect, interior designer, or other individual qualified by education, state licensure, or certification to provide services for the design of buildings, interiors, and furnishings.

DIE WALL

A woodwork assembly, typically vertical, consisting of sub framing as the support for countertops and finished faces as well as a chaseway for wiring. Often self-supporting or free standing. Example: reception desks, nurse stations and low walls.

DIMENSIONAL LUMBER

Material that is pre-cut in width and thickness to a standard size.

DISCOLORATIONS

Stains in wood materials; i.e. sap stains, blue stains, or stains produced by: 1) Chemical action caused by iron tools coming into contact with the wood’s tannic acid; 2) Adhesive components, and/or the surface finish; 3) Exposure of natural wood extractives to oxygen and light; 4) Chemical action of vat treatments or ingredients of the adhesive or core material.

DISTRESSING

In finishing, either a mechanical or chemical special effect meant to give the appearance of wear from use over time.

DIVISION

A cabinet component that is not one of the two sides, top, or bottom. A division divides a cabinet into sections. Divisions may be horizontal or vertical.

DOOR FURNISHER

The party responsible for the take off, ordering, and supplying of hinged, sliding, or revolving barriers at the entrance to a building or a room.

DOVETAIL JOINT

A joinery technique consisting of one or more tenons cut to extend from the end of one board and interlock with a corresponding series of mortises cut into the end of another board. When glued, a wooden dovetail joint requires no mechanical fasteners.

DOWELED

A cylindrical wooden or metal peg used to join two members when inserted into an abutting piece to prevent motion or slipping.

DOWELED JOINT

A joinery technique using “dowels” (doweled construction); also “doweled edge joint.”

DOZE

A form of wood decay characterized by a dull and lifeless appearance of the wood, accompanied by a loss of strength and softening of the wood.

DUST PANEL

See SECURITY (DUST) PANEL
E

EASED EDGES

The result of a process in which sharp edges are traditionally “eased” by lightly striking the edge with a fine abrasive. May also be machined to a small radius when permitted by specification.

ECONOMY GRADE

One of three aesthetic grades in regard to material and workmanship. Appropriate for work where price is a major factor and relaxing of tolerances is acceptable. Typical areas for use include back rooms as well as utility and storage areas.

EDGE GLUED

Boards glued together at the edges to increase width.

EDGEBANDING

The material applied to the edge of panels or countertops to cover the exposed core. Typically machine applied. Final appearance is subject to tolerances found in these Standards.

EFFECT

The final result achieved in a finished wood surface, after the application of a clearly specified series of finishing procedures (steps) have been completed. Successfully achieving a specified “effect” requires the active participation of the design professional and the woodwork finisher.

ELEVATION

As used within these standards, refers to a view of the front, back or end of an assembly or grouping of architectural woodwork components as viewed when standing and looking at the component(s).

END BUTT JOINT

A union formed when: • The end of one board is glued to an edge or face of another board to form an angle (i.e., stiles and rails of a face frame) • The square-cut end of one board is fastened to the square-cut end of another to increase its length (i.e., running trim)

END MATCH

Butting adjacent veneer leaves on one panel end to end in sequence. Veneer leaves are book matched end to end. Generally used for very long panels or for projects in which only short-length veneers are available.

EQUILIBRIUM MOISTURE CONTENT

The moisture content at which wood neither gains nor loses moisture when surrounded by air at a given relative humidity and temperature.

EXPOSED EXTERIOR SURFACES

For purposes of these standards, specifically casework, generally means all exterior surfaces exposed to view. Exposed Exterior Surfaces may be more precisely defined in individual standards.

EXPOSED FASTENERS

Any mechanical fastening device, filled or unfilled, visible on exposed or semi-exposed surfaces of woodwork.

EXPOSED INTERIOR SURFACES

For purposes of these standards, specifically casework, generally means all interior surfaces exposed to view in open casework or behind transparent doors. Exposed Interior Surfaces may be more precisely defined in individual standards.

EXPOSED SURFACES

See EXPOSED EXTERIOR SURFACES, EXPOSED INTERIOR SURFACES, SEMI-EXPOSED SURFACES).

EXTERIOR (BUILDING)

The portion of the structure that is outside of the weather proofing of the building, including the weather proofing (non-climate controlled).
F

FACE

The better side of any panel in which the outer plies are of different veneer grades. Also, either side of a panel in which there is no difference in veneer grade of the outer plies.

FACE FRAME

Components attached to the front of a cabinet body which overlay the edges of the carcass and provide an attachment point for doors and external hardware.

FACE FRAME CONSTRUCTION

Cabinet construction type that incorporates a FACE FRAME.

FACE VENEER

The outermost exposed wood veneer surface of a veneered door, panel, or other component exposed to view when the project is completed.

FASTENER, MECHANICAL

The generic term for securing devices that are used in the fabrication and/or installation of architectural woodwork, such as dowels, dowel screws, splines, nails, screws, bolts, and shot pins.

FEW

A small number (generally less than five).

FIBERBOARD CORE

Fine fibers of wood mixed with binders and formed into panels with heat and pressure.

FIDDLEBACK

A fine, strong, even ripple figure occurring at a right angle to straight grain. Frequently seen on the backs of violins. Commonly found in mahogany, maple, and occasionally in other species.

FIELD

Referring to the building construction location or jobsite.

FIGURE

The natural pattern produced in the wood surface by annual growth rings, rays, knots, and natural deviations from the normal grain such as interlocked and wavy grain, and irregular coloration.

FILLER

1) A trim component used in conjunction with the installation of casework to close or span voids between casework units.
2) For other applications, see JOINT FILLER.

FILLER (COMPONENT)

In casework, paneling, ornamental work, stairwork, frames, and some other architectural woodwork applications, an additional piece of trim material between woodwork components or between woodwork and some other material used to create a fill or transition between the members.

FILLER (FINISHING)

In finishing, ground inert solids specifically designed to fill pores or small cavities in wood as one step in the overall finishing process.

FINGER JOINT

A series of precise, interlocking fingers cut on the ends of two matching pieces of wood that mesh together and are held rigidly in place with adhesive to increase the length of the board or moulding.

FINISHED FLOOR

The specified floor surface, generally installed over a sub-floor after other architectural woodwork components are installed.

FINISHING (COATING) TECHNOLOGY

A specific coating chemistry applied to a surface for the purpose of producing desired aesthetic and/or protective qualities of the finished product.

FIRE RATED DOOR

Doors complying with NFPA 80 that are listed and labeled by a qualified testing agency for fire-protection ratings. Ratings are indicated, based on testing at positive pressure according to NFPA 252 or UL 10C. Doors can be rated as resisting fire for 20 minutes, 30 minutes, 45 minutes, 60 minutes, or 90 minutes. The door must be tested and carry an identifying label from a qualified testing and inspection agency.

FIRE RETARDANT TREATMENT

The impregnation of the wood, under pressure, with salts and other chemicals to reduce flammability and retard the spread of flame over the surface. Note: Only a few species are treated. Due to its closed cell structure, white oak is untreatable.

FLAKE

See FLECK, RAY

FLAKEBOARD

See PARTICLEBOARD (PTBD)

FLAME SPREAD

Fire retardant designations indicated by a testing facility’s certified stamp. It is the responsibility of the specifier to indicate which fire-retardant classification is required for a particular product. In the absence of such a specified rating, the manufacturer may supply unrated product.

FLAME SPREAD CLASSIFICATION

The generally-accepted measurement for flame spread rating of materials. It compares the rate of flame spread on a particular species with the rate of flame spread on untreated Red Oak.

FLAT GRAIN (FG) or SLASH GRAIN (SG)

A woodgrain pattern resulting when lumber or veneer is sawn or sliced approximately parallel to the annual growth rings so that the majority of the rings form an angle of less than 45° to the surface of the piece.

FLAT SLICING

See PLAIN SLICING

FLATNESS

A description of a surface in one plane without depressions or projections.

FLECK, RAY

The portion of a ray as it appears on a quarter-sawn or rift-cut surface. Fleck is often a dominant appearance feature in quarter-sliced oak veneer or quartered oak lumber.

FLITCH

1) A half log evaluated and prepared for veneer production or 2) the veneer slices of one log, kept in order, tallied, bundled and ready for sale for door or panel production.

FLUSH INSET

Cabinet construction in which the door and drawer faces are set within and flush with the body members or face frames of the cabinet with spaces between face surfaces sufficient for operating clearance.

FLUSH OVERLAY

Cabinet construction in which door and drawer faces cover the body members of the cabinet with minimal spaces between face surfaces within the tolerances outlined in the standards.

FLUTE

One of a series of parallel, lengthwise channels or grooves in a column, cornice moulding, band, or furniture leg.

FRAMELESS CONSTRUCTION

Cabinet construction type without a face frame. Characterized by components of the cabinet box that are usually edgebanded.

FRENCH CLEAT

A method of concealed panel or casework installation, consisting of two pieces of solid lumber or panel product, each having one edge machined at an angle. One piece is attached to the wall while the other is attached to the back of the casework product such that the pieces will lock together when the casework is hung.

FURRING

Material added to a building surface to create a true plane in order to install woodwork plumb and level.